Different Types of Steel
Steel is a composite material composed of iron and carbon. It can contain many other elements, such as chromium, which improves its strength and fracture resistance. For example, stainless steel fabricator typically contains 11% chromium. A stainless steel is resistant to corrosion. However, its strength and fracture resistance is a function of the type of alloy it is made of.
As the name suggests, alloy steel is steel that is alloyed with a variety of elements to increase its mechanical properties. They are generally broken down into two categories: low and high alloy steels. However, there is some debate about the exact differences between the two.
Carbon steel is a type of steel that contains an amount of carbon that ranges from 0.05 percent to 2.1 percent by weight. The American Iron and Steel Institute defines carbon steel as one with a carbon content of 0.05 percent to 2.1 percent.
Stainless steel is a class of steel alloy that combines different base metals to create a material that is resistant to corrosion. The alloying elements used in the construction of stainless steel include chromium and carbon. The chromium creates a passive layer on the surface of the steel, which protects it against corroding agents. Various processes are used to increase the stainless steel's passivation, including chemical treatments. These processes clean the steel of contaminants, such as dirt, rust, or oxidation, so as to enhance the passive layer.
High-speed steel is a subset of tool steels and is often used to manufacture cutting tools. It is highly suited for machining operations, allowing for faster cutting speeds and greater precision.
Tool steels are different types of carbon and alloy steels that are particularly useful for making tools, hand tools, and knives. They can also be used in the manufacture of dies.
Austenitic steels are ductile and exhibit high tensile strength at low temperatures. Because of these properties, austenitic steels are ideal for many applications, including aerospace, automotive, and chemical alloys.
Duplex steels are a family of stainless steels. These steels contain two phases: austenite and ferrite, in roughly equal proportions. This property makes them particularly strong.
Molybdenum has two distinct effects on the mechanical properties of steel. Firstly, it increases the Charpy impact energy by 0.08 wt%. In addition, it increases the transition temperature from the plate to the sheave morphology. Secondly, it causes a greater degree of bainite formation, which allows it to absorb a greater amount of impact energy.
Manganese is a key ingredient in steel. It improves the strength and ductility of the material and has self-hardening properties. It is capable of achieving 3 times the surface hardness during impact, without increasing brittleness. The presence of manganese is also beneficial for the conversion of iron into steel. It also helps to remove sulfur and oxygen from the iron ore.
Vanadium is an important element in the manufacturing of steel. Its addition makes steel harder and resists oxidation, corrosion, and abrasion. This element is used in many different steel alloys.